Monday, May 18, 2009

Coalition Sorkar Bawk

¢ Dr James LT Thanga

Tunah hian Lok Sabha sawmpangana siam turin India ram pumah MP election neih mek a ni. Tun tum inthlanpuiah hian beisei angin vote a tla tha lo hle a, Mizoramah pawh 50 percent vel awrh a tla a ni. Hetia vote tla tha lo hi tu party ber emaw chuan a hlawkpui ang a, thenkhatin an tuar thei ngeiin a rinawm.

Tun tum inthlana thil chiang tak hriat lawk theih chu tu party mah hi sorkarna siam tur chuan an chak dawn lo tih hi a ni. Hei hian zawhna lian tak a ken tel tlat mai chu - ‘India ram multi-party democracy hi a damkhawchhuak (survive) dawn em?’ tih hi a ni ta.

Kum 1989 hmalam zawng, kum sawmli chuang zet chhung khan India hian prime minister paruk a nei hman a, chung zinga pathumte chuan kum 5 tling lo office an luah a ni. 1989 atanga tun thleng hian prime minister pasarih an awm tawh a, a then phei chu ni 13 chauh office luaha, tla leh ta maite an ni. Heti tak maia sorkarna leh hruaitu an inthlak zinna chhan nia lang chu party malin sorkarna an chang zo tawh ngai lo a, midangte nen tangrual sorkar (coalition government) an siam thin vang a ni.

Tangrual sorkar an din a, amaherawhchu, party hrang hrangten tanrual dan an thiam tawk loh vangin hruaitu thlak zut a lo ngai a, sum tam tak senga mid-term poll neih hial te pawh a ngai ta thin a ni.
Coalition

Coaliation tih thumal hi Latin word ‘coalitio’ tih atanga lak niin, a awmzia chu ‘thangho’ (to grow together) tihna a ni. Party engemaw zatin sorkarna intawm an siam hi ‘coaliation government’ (tangrual sorkar) kan ti a, hei hi India ram democracy kal zel dan tur ni pawhin a lang.

Coalition sorkar siam dan hi chi hnih a awm thei a: inthlan hmaa party te'n inzawmna thuthlung siam a, inthlanpuia chuhho leh inthlan result chhuah hnua party-te thawhho leh a ni. India rama hman lar zawk chu a hnuhnung zawk ang hi a ni a. Tin, hemi bakah hian sorkarna chhunga tel ve lova pawnlam atanga inthlawp pawh a awm fo bawk.

Mi tam takin an duhthusam chu US leh UK te anga party pahnih chauh inbeihna (two-party system) India rama neih ve mai hi a ni. Amaherawhchu, India ram, hnam leh chi hrang leh ziarang inhlat tak tak nei ramah hian party tam tak awm theihna, tuna hman lai ‘multi-party system’ hi chu a tha ber ni chuan a hriat. Hei hian hnam chi hrang hrangte rorelnaah dinhmun pawimawh tak a chantir niin a lang.

Party tam tak awmna leh coalition sorkar hlawhtling taka hun rei tak lo kalpui tawh ram tam tak an awm ve tho tih hi hriat a tha awm e. Entirna thenkhat lo tarlang ila; Khawvela ram ropui leh hausa ber zinga mi Germany chuan Indopui Pahnihna atanga tun thleng hian multi-party coalition sorkar hlawhtling takin an kalpui mek. US aia mimal sum lakluh (per capita income) nei sang zawk Switzerland ram pawh khu hnam chi hrang hrang - he'ng French, German, Italian, etc awmna leh rinna lamah pawh thuang hnih lian tak Roman Catholic leh Protestant awmna ram a ni. Mahse khu ramah khuan hun rei tak chhung chu coalition sorkar hi hlawhtling taka lo kalpui tawh niin, la kalpui mek zel a ni. Coalition sorkar hnuaiah Poland ram pawhin nasa takin hma a sawn a ni. Heng atanga chiang taka hmuh theih chu coalition that leh that loh chu a hman tangkai dan thiam leh thiam lohah a innghat zawk tih hi a ni.

Ram tan a tha em?
India independence atanga kum 1989 thleng, hun rei lo te tih loh chu party mal sorkarna hnuaiah India hi a awm. Sorkar ngelnghet a ding thin. Hemi hnulam hi chuan party mal sorkar a ding ta meuh lo.

Kawng lehlama thlir chuan India ram economy hi 1989 hnulamah hian nasa takin a thang a, a hmaa ‘Hindu Rate of Growth’ an tihfiam thin 3% vela thanna kha chu tunah chuna India hian a khum nasa tawh hle. Kum 2004 atang ringawt pawh khan a chawhrualin 9% velin a thang a nih kha. Hei hian zawhna lian tak a ken chu party mal sorkar khan ram hmasawnna tak tak turin policy tha an ngaihven lo nge, mipui an represent tawk lo? Chhanna tam tak a awm thei ang. Amaherawhchu, India ram a than tak thutna chhan hi chu New Economic Policy 1991, PV Narasimha Rao-a minority sorkar nih laia tuna prime minister Dr Manmohan Singh-a, khatih laia finance minister-in a kalpui vang a ni a tih loh theih loh.

Kha policy khan India ram economy chu sorkar khuahkhirhna ata zalenna a pe a, hemi avang hian ram a thang niin a lang. Sorkarna chungchang lam niin a lang chiah lo. Amaherawhchu, sorkar ngelnghet hi ram hmasawnna innghahna pawimawh ber pakhat a ni tih erawh tlang hriat a ni.

Coalition sorkar hian thatna tam tak sawi tur a nei ngei ang a, chutihlai chuan India ram bikah chuan a that lohna hi a langsar viau mai. Thenkhat lo tarlang ila:

1. Sorkar ngelnghet lo (unstable government) a hring: Party hrang hrang, ngaihdan inang lo tak tak, sorkar lai paihthlak duh hrim hrimna (anti-incumbency) vang emaw, tu party emawin ram an hruai hlauh vang hrim hrim ringawta inzawmkhawm hi a awm thei. Hetiang a nih thin avang hian inlungrual rei a harsa em em a, prime minister-in internal/external security, foreign policy engemaw an han kalpui a, duh loh avanga sorkar thlawpna atanga inhnukdawk leh mai party an awm thin. Nikum lawkah pawh Left hoin sorkar an thlawpna an hnukdawk a, UPA sorkarin a tluk phah tep a nih kha.

2. Ram economyin a tuar: Party dangte thawhpui ngai sorkar chuan thutlukna lian tham (drastic decision) siam a harsat em em thin a, a thawhpuite a tihlungawi hmasak vek hma chuan a ti ngai lo. Hei hian retheihna umbo tura programme hrang hrang te, thingtlang mite tihhmasawnna tura programme te, etc ahte pawh sorkarin a duh angin hna a thawk thei thin lo. Entirnan, NREGA pass pawh a harsat em kha.

Chutiang bawkin energy-a India ram a intodelh theihna tura thil pawimawh tak Indo-US Nuclear Deal-ah pawh khan sorkarin harsatna nasa tak a tawk a nih kha. Hetiang bawk hian ram economy thanna tura prime minister policy, entirnan, ram dang atanga investment sum zalen taka a luh leh chhuah theihna (full capital account convertibility) angte pawh tun thlengin khaweng hmu loin ala awm mek a ni.

3. Mi tha lote chance: An party MP te thlawpna mamawh vangin khawilai party tenau hruaitu mitha lo tak, criminal case nei lai pawhin cabinet minister dinhmun hial pawh an chang thei. Entirnan, Sibu Soren-a chu an state-a chief minister ni tawh chung pawha bye-election -a tling zo chuang miah lo kha, a party MP te'n sorkar an thlawp avangin an state-ah CM nihtir a nih kha.

Association for Democratic Reforms (ADR) in kum 2004 Lok Sabha election-a candidate 3182-te a zirchianna hi han tarlang lawk ila. Candidate 3182 zinga 518 chuan tunhmain dan bawhchhiatna thubuai an nei tawh a. Heng zinga 115 chu thlantlin niin a then phei chuan union cabinet minister dinhmun leh Public Sector Undertaking-ah te chairman nihna hial changte pawh an awm. Hei hian entir a neih chu - India-in coalition sorkar a kalpui dan hian mi tha lote tan kawng a hawng fo niin a lang.

4. ‘Political opportunism’ a ni: Hei hi party thenkhatina sorkarna siam tura an pawimawhna denchhena anmahni emaw an state emaw tana sorkar thuneihna kaihpen thin hi a ni. Entirnan, SP party khan Nuclear-deal chungchanga UPA sorkar an chhanchhuah avang khan an awmna state tan engemaw tak tihsak turin sorkar nawr ta se, sorkar lahin damkhawchhuah a duh si chuan a tihsak mai a ngai thin. Hei hi ram pum tan a tha lo em em a, a bikin MP nei tlem state te tan a tha lo lehzual a ni.

Engtia kal zel tur nge ni ang?
Tuna Indian Democracy kal dan hi Constitution duangtute khan an hmu pha ang em a tih theih. India ram inthlan dan leh sorkar siam dan an duante en hi chuan party mal majority la thei awm zel turin an ngai niin a hriat theih. Amaherawhchu, tunah hi chuan party mal sorkarna hi chu beisei theih a ni ta si lo a, engtia tih tur nge ni ang, tih hi politics lam ngaihtuah mite rilru ti buaitu a ni ta. Rawtna tam tak a awm thei ang a, keima mimal rawtna thenkhat lo tarlang ila:

(i) Common Minimum Programme: Coalition sorkar siam tur reng rengin an sorkar zawmtutena an pawmtlan theih tur programme siam thei zel se. He CMP (Common Minimum Programme) huang chhunga lungawi thei lo party chuan coalition sorkar hi zawm tum ve lo mai se. Hei hi tuna UPA pawh hian a ti a, mahse an la inlungrual tawk lo niin a ngaih theih. He an pawmtlan theih tur chin duansa huam chhungah hian sorkar kaihruaitu party-in thil kalpui thin se. He CMP hi tha taka tihhlawhtlin a nih phawt chuan prime minister hi thil dangah chuan zalenna zau tak pek theih ni se. ‘Chutin, khatin tih loh chuan kan thlawpna kan titawp ang’ tih ang vel hi chu bo tawh se.

(ii) Anti-Defection Law huang zauh: India Constitution amendment vawi 52nd (1985) leh 91st (2003) chu Parliament/State legislature member te'n an party duh dan kalha vote an thlak venna turin siam a ni. Hei hi Anti-defection law kan tih tak hi a ni. He danin a sawi chu MP/MLA-in party dang a thlawp dawn a nih chuan MP/MLA a nihna atangin a bang hmasa tur a ni. Chuti a nih loh chuan member a nihna atanga ban theih a ni. Amaherawhchu, an party member tam zawkin an zui dawn a nih chuan he dan hian a phuar lo thung. Hei hian party lian deuh member-te a phuar em em laiin party tenau deuh zawkte a phuar lo viau thung. Entirnan, MP 20 chuang zet nei atangin MP 5-in defect duh ta se an ban hmasak phawt a ngai. Chutihlai chuan MP 10 aia tlem nei party atanga MP 5-ina defect chu a phuar lo thung. Hei hian party tenau deuhte sorkarah dinhmun pawimawh tak a chantir thin. Thatna tak pawh a nei.
He ‘Anti-defection law’ hi a huang zauh deuh ni se, coalition sorkar thlawptu zawng zawng pawh hi sorkar an thlawp tawh a nih chuan party pakhat member angin he dan hian phuarkhawm ve vek se. Hei hian sorkar nghet neih theihnan kori a tu viauin ka ring.

(iii) ‘Positive vote of confidence’: Hei hi Germany-a practice thin a ni. Sorkar lai hi a thlaktu tur chian hma leh majority an nei ngei em tih House-a fiah a nih phawt loh chuan ‘no-confidence motion’-a sorkar dinglai hi paihthlak theih a ni lo. Hei hian sum tam tak senga mid-term poll neih ngai thin hi a tibo ngei ang.

(iv) Langtlang sorkar (transparent government): Sorkarna khaidingtu reng rengin langtlang takin a thil ruahman leh tih mekte a ti thin tur a ni. Hei hian inlungrualna tha zawk a thlen ngei ang.

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